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Power Factory 15 2 ##VERIFIED## Crack 3

The Taishan Nuclear Power Plant (Chinese: 台山核电站; pinyin: Táishān Hédiànzhàn) is a nuclear power plant in Taishan, Guangdong province, China.[3]The plant features two operational EPR reactors.The first unit, Taishan 1, entered commercial service in December 2018, but was shut down from July 2021 to August 2022 to investigate and fix issues with fuel rod cladding. The second unit, Taishan 2, entered commercial service in September 2019. Delays at other EPR construction sites in Finland and France meant that Taishan was the first nuclear power plant to have an operational EPR.

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The plant's twin reactors each have a nameplate capacity 1750 MWe. Its Arabelle generators are the largest single-piece electrical generators in the world, each weighing 495 tonnes and built by Dongfang Electric.Of the 3500 MWe gross delivered, around 180 MWe will be used by plant systems. Most of this is used to power the pumps that feed water into the steam generators. The pair of reactors can deliver 3320 MWe net for supply to the grid, making these the most powerful reactors in the world.[4]

In December 2017, Hong Kong media reported that a boiler had cracked during testing, and that welding on the component was considered "problematic". Neither the nuclear plant's operators nor the manufacturer of the affected component responded to the news agency's request for comment.[11][12] The boiler was later found to be a deaerator, which removes dissolved oxygen from water by heating it.

On April 9, 2018, the Official Letter of Approving the Initial Fuel Loading of the first unit of the Taishan Nuclear Power Plant was issued by the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). Taishan Unit 1 began fuel loading at 18:18 on April 10, marking the beginning of fuel loading of the first reactor using the third-generation nuclear power technology EPR.[15]

On March 2, 2021, the Chinese NNSA reported that a "level 0" incident occurred on February 21, which caused Unit 1 to SCRAM automatically. Post-accident investigation revealed the cause of the SCRAM to be a technician accidentally shorting a circuit during an onsite investigation of a slight under-voltage of a 10kV power supply. To prevent this accident from occurring in the future, all nuclear power plants were ordered to revise operating procedures to improve reliability and maintainability of similar power supplies.[20]

Li Ning, a nuclear scientist based in the United States, criticized CNN as "making a mountain out of a molehill", stating that it was unrealistic to expect "zero failure" in the fuel claddings at any nuclear reactor. Li also criticized the media for being "often unwilling to put risks into proper perspective", which according to Li, killed the Western nuclear industry, and stated that "Coal fired power plants can emit and discharge more radioactivity than nuclear power plants."[25]

An earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurs off the eastern coast of Japan causing the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) units 1, 2 and 3 to shut down automatically. Units 4, 5 and 6 have been previously shut down for outages, with unit 4 having been defueled in November 2010. Offsite power is lost. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provide power for the emergency core cooling systems for a short time. A tsunami strikes the Fukushima facility. Onsite EDGs stop working. The steam-driven reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) systems and high-pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system (unit 3) provide cooling to units 1, 2 and 3. An evacuation order is issued for persons within 3 km of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP.

A fire is reported at unit 4. Damage to the top levels of the unit 4 reactor building is confirmed. Venting of the unit 2 primary containment begins. A hydrogen explosion occurs within the unit 2 reactor building. The suppression chamber (wetwell) of the primary containment is suspected to have been damaged. The unit 2 reactor building appears to remain intact. A fourth explosion occurs at the site: unit 4 sustains additional damage to the upper portion of the reactor building. The risk of water boiling in the unit 4 spent fuel pool is reported. The water level in the unit 5 reactor decreases to about 200 cm above the top of active fuel. The operational unit 6 EDG begins supplying power to the cooling systems at both units 5 and 6.

Seawater continues to be sprayed into the unit 3 spent fuel pool. Units 5 and 6 continue to be powered by an operational unit 6 EDG. Both unit 6 EDGs are operational and provide power to units 5 and 6. Spent fuel pool cooling at units 5 and 6 begins. It is reported that milk and spinach from areas around the plant have radiation levels that exceed Japanese standards. There are reports of higher than normal levels (though below allowable levels) of radioactive iodine and caesium-137 in water supplies away from the site in regions including Tokyo (traces of iodine). Tap water in Fukushima is found to have higher than allowed levels of radioactive iodine.

The spent fuel pool temperatures at units 5 and 6 are reported to be decreasing. Units 5 and 6 reach cold shutdown conditions. Crews continue to spray seawater into the unit 3 spent fuel pool. Forty tonnes of seawater have been injected into the unit 2 spent fuel pool. The unit 2 temporary power centre is powered by offsite sources.

Offsite power is available to units 1, 2, 5 and 6. Power from units 1 and 2 is diverted to a temporary distribution system. Testing of equipment affected by the earthquake and tsunami begins at units 1 and 2. Power to unit 5 is switched from the unit 6 EDG to offsite power. A government directive is issued requesting relevant businesses and individuals to suspend shipment of spinach, kakina (a green vegetable) and raw milk for the time being.

Offsite electrical power is currently available at units 3 and 4, so all six units now have external power. Testing of components continues before reconnecting power at units 1 and 2. Units 5 and 6 are in cold shutdown with cooling of the spent fuel pools continuing. Sampling of seawater downstream of the units 1, 2, 3 and 4 discharge canal detects levels of radioactive iodine (131) and caesium (134 and 137) that exceed regulatory limits.

Crews continue to spray water into the spent fuel pools of units 3 and 4. Work to recover power for units 1 through 6 is in progress. Integrity checks of electrical equipment is ongoing in each unit and must be completed before restoring power. Lighting is restored in the main control room of unit 3. External electrical power is replaced by an emergency diesel generator in units 5 and 6.

External electrical power to the main control room at unit 2 will be available today. Unit 1 reactor temperature decreases from about 400C to 204.5C as of 06:00. TEPCO suspects that nuclear fuel in the reactor or spent nuclear fuel in the pool has been damaged and that water contaminated with high radioactivity has leaked to the workspace. Surface temperatures of units 1, 2, 3 and 4 are below 20C. The surface temperature of the spent fuel pool at unit 3 has dropped to 31C from 56C on the previous day.

Water is sprayed into the spent fuel pools at units 1 and 3 using a concrete pumping truck. A second barge arrives at the site with additional fresh water to replenish the filtered water being used to cool the reactors. Dose levels exceeding 1 000 mSv/h are detected in the pit where supply cables are stored near the intake for unit 2. A 20 cm crack is found on the side of this pit where water is flowing out. Efforts begin to seal the pit to minimise further leakage of water into the environment.

Fresh water is injected into the reactors at units 1, 2 and 3 using electrical pumps that are powered by an off-site source. Water is sprayed into the spent fuel pool at unit 4 using a concrete pumping truck. Efforts to seal the crack in the pit near the unit 2 intake do not reduce the leakage. Additional actions are planned to seal the crack.

A magnitude 7.1 earthquake (aftershock) occurs near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This is the largest aftershock since the magnitude 9.0 earthquake on 11 March 2011. The impacts to ongoing activities at the plant are minimal. No changes in radiation levels or spread of contamination are noted following the aftershock. Cooling water is injected into the spent fuel pools at units 2 and 4.

The chart above shows recent trends in a single product crack spread, or the difference between the U.S. Gulf Coast conventional gasoline spot price (the black line) and the Louisiana Light Sweet crude spot price (the blue line). Crack spreads can be positive (the grey shaded region) or negative (the red shaded region), depending on relative product prices.

By comparing the price of crude oil (which is set in a global marketplace) with the price of refined products (which can be affected by local and seasonal factors), crack spreads can often give an indication of supply conditions in a given market.

Even though they have smaller engines, they can be much faster in comparison to other vehicles out there. For instance, a motorcycle fitted with a 190-horsepower, four-cylinder engine can finish a quarter-mile within a mere 10 seconds. That is enough to show you that the speeds reached by a bike can truly be iconic. Some of the fastest bikes in the world can power from 0-60 mph in under three seconds.

Renowned brands such as Suzuki, Honda, and Yamaha all try to gain the respected title of producing the fastest bike of the year. Here is a list of 15 fast bikes that crack a 0-60 mph time of less than 3 seconds:

Being able to power from 0 to 60 in just 2.47 seconds, the Suzuki Hayabusa has created a highly respectable name for itself. Its popularity is also credited to its exotic and unique look, which makes it stand out even further. The best part about this bike? It has a top speed of 186 mph.

The original V-Max debuted in 1985 and soon became famous for its explosive acceleration. Unfortunately, it became equally infamous for its lack of handling. In 2009, Yamaha finally gave us a new version, this time called VMAX. The new model featured a new chassis, state-of-the-art braking components, and upgraded components all around. The 1,679cc V4 engine found in this Japanese power cruiser pumps out an almost unbelievable 200 hp, which sends it from 0 to 60 in a mere 2.5 seconds and on to a top speed of 135 mph.


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